In this study, women's education and coeducation in Russia from past to present has been discussed. In this context, the perspective of the Russian intellectuals and the church and the practices in the Tsarist period, the Soviet period and the modern period were examined. From 1918 to 1943, both male and female students educated together, but later on, male and female students studied separately. Important and lively debates took place in pedagogical environments about coeducation, and the government took part in these discussions. In 1954, education was mixed again. After the collapse of the USSR, with some changes in the education system in Russia in the 1990s, there are single-sex educational institutions that continue to operate, although coeducation prevails in the country's education system. Today, there are two types of schools in Russia, traditional schools with single-sex education, and pilot schools. In pilot schools, students are enrolled in parallel classes consisting only of female or male students at the request of their parents. In some schools, besides these separate classes, there are mixed classes where boys and girls learn together. Even today, advocates and opponents of single-sex education in the media frequently voice their views and put forward many arguments to prove their reasons.