The cornerstone of the educational process includes conceptual learning, and in this context, misconceptions are of great importance. At the secondary school level, one of the subjects that students frequently encounter and have difficulty with is rational numbers. Effectively explaining rational numbers and associating them with daily life is possible with the teaching methods teachers can choose. This study aims to determine the misconceptions of 7th-grade students about rational numbers. Within the scope of the research, a sample was formed with 69 seventh-grade students studying in a central secondary school affiliated with the Ministry of National Education in the province of Şanlıurfa in the second half of the 2021-2022 academic year. Common mistakes and conceptual misconceptions of students about rational numbers were determined, and content analysis was conducted in line with these misconceptions. The findings revealed that students still have conceptual difficulties and errors in rational numbers from the primary school level. Therefore, students' misconceptions and incomplete information should be focused on in teaching rational numbers, and students should be encouraged to develop a conceptual understanding to comprehend rational numbers better.