The aim of this study is to examine the effect of Augmented Reality applications on students' academic achievement and retention of learning in the learning area of "People,Places and Environments" in the "Life on Earth Unit" of the 6th Grade Social Studies Course in the 2019-2020 Fall Semester.The quasi-experimental research was conducted on a total of 62 students studying in the 6th grade of Tevfik Fikret Secondary School in Diyarbakır Sur district in the 2019-2020 Fall Semester.Of these students, 31 were assigned to the experimental group and 31 to the control group. The data were collected with an achievement test developed by the researcher. The test consisting of a total of 30 multiple-choice items was applied to both groups as pretest, posttest and retention test. The data obtained from these applications were analyzed with parametric tests such as independent groups "t" test, dependent groups "t" test and eta square after normality tests. In the study, it was concluded that teaching supported by Augmented Reality (AR) applications in middle school social studies course was more effective than the current teaching in increasing academic achievement. It was also determined that AR-supported instruction provided more permanent learning compared to the current instruction. In the study, it was evaluated that this situation may be due to the higher level of learning obtained with the cognitive and affective support provided by AR, which increases the retention of what is learned. At the end of the research, it was evaluated that the fact that AR provides both academic success and permanent learning may be due to the fact that this technology makes the messages (stimuli) more effective in the lessons and the students react to them more strongly. From this point of view, it was inferred that AR is suitable for the mental functioning of current middle school students with high virtual and digital competence.