Argumentation, which is defined as a process in which students work in groups using their problem-solving skills to support a result or refute counter claims, and where evidence and theories are found, has become important in the Turkish education system, especially in terms of scientific literacy and science teaching (Ministry of National Education, 2018). Within the scope of the study, the effect of the argumentation supported problem-based learning method on the detection of the misconceptions of the students studying in the Department of Science Education about "Particulate, Space and Motion Natures of Matter" was examined. Based on this main purpose, a case study was applied in the study, one of the qualitative research methods. The study group of the research consists of 22 pre-service science teachers. According to the data obtained at the end of the study, it was observed that pre-service teachers structured non-scientific claims, could not provide sufficient justification, and could not use their refutation skills adequately.